The kidneys filter the blood, excretion of waste and excess fluid into the urine. When kidney function is impaired, toxins and excess fluid accumulate in the body, which may be dangerous.
The deterioration of renal function is slow as symptoms worsen as chronic kidney failure worsens. Sometimes no symptoms of the disease are detected in the early stages, so they are detected only in later stages.
Treatment focuses on slowing the deterioration of kidney function, generally by treating the primary cause of the infection. When the disease progresses, it is possible to reach a situation in which the kidneys do not function entirely due to injury.
Kidney failure may be:
· Partial (no need for washing or kidney transplantation)
· Final (needs for washing or kidney transplant)
Chronic renal failure symptoms The symptoms of chronic renal failure may develop slowly to include :
- Low urine intake, not always.
- Lack of appetite
- Fatigue and general weakness
- Low concentration
- Frequent muscle tension resulting from accumulation of salts
Swelling of ankles and legs (due to accumulation of fluid)
These symptoms are not limited to renal failure, but may also occur when other diseases are involved. In addition, the kidneys have a high ability to compensate for the damage, so the diagnosis of the disease and chronic kidney failure can be delayed.
Causes and risk factors of chronic kidney failure
There are a range of diseases that lead to kidney failure and are mostly chronic for months or years. Accumulated damage leads to reduced kidney performance and chronic injury.
Diseases and conditions may lead to renal failure if not treated or controlled
- Diabetes type 1 (Diabetes mellitus type 1).
- Diabetes type 2 (Diabetes mellitus type 2).
- Rheumatic diseases such as lupus, scleroderma and vasculitis.
- Enlargement of the prostate gland.
- kidney stones.
Urinary bladder cancer .
- Cancer in the kidney.
Frequent urinary incontinence with reflux in the urine
- A partial or complete blockage of the kidney artery that supplies blood.
- Hereditary diseases (Polycystic Kidney)
Kidney risk factors include: heart disease , smoking, obesity, high levels of cholesterol in the blood, previous kidney injury within the patient's family, and the advanced generation.
Complications of chronic kidney failure
Fluid retention: The ability of the kidney to get rid of excess fluid is damaged, leading to swelling of the limbs or fluid deposition in the lungs, as well as high blood pressure.
Arrhythmia: The accumulation of the potassium level, which may rise rapidly in the blood leading to arrhythmia, which can lead to death.
Fractures in the bones: The kidneys balance the levels of phosphorus and calcium in the blood, which are vital elements to build bones. Damage to the concentration of these minerals leads to osteoporosis and fractures.
Anemia: The kidneys produce a hormone called Erythropoietin, which functions as a bone marrow stimulator to produce red blood cells. In renal failure, hormone levels decrease and red blood cells (Anemia) occur.
Central nervous system injury: The accumulation of toxic substances in the body to damage the performance of the job, and suffers from the difficulty of concentration, changes in personality and up to the occurrence of seizures. This condition is known as Uremia.
Complications: Decreased sexual arousal and impotence Decreased immune system performance, pericarditis and complications during pregnancy.
Diagnosis of chronic kidney failure
Blood tests: Blood tests can be done at the level of waste materials such as Urea, creatinine, calcium, potassium phosphorus, sodium and more. These indicators reflect the level of college performance.
Paul's examination: The presence of certain substances, such as proteins, leads to renal failure and vice versa, where too low concentrations of waste can indicate an injury.
Diagnosis: In some cases, we want to see the general shape of the kidney and whether there is a mechanical injury or tumor, and therefore we do the examination of sonar (Ultrasound) or CT (CT).
Biopsy: A needle is inserted and directed by a sonar device, and a small piece of kidney tissue is taken. This tissue can be examined by the laboratory and diagnosis of kidney disease.
Treatment of chronic renal failure
The treatment focuses on chronic kidney failure On the cause of the disease, because the lack of medicine so far can help to restore the performance of kidneys. In addition, prevention of the continuation of the damage includes: appropriate nutrition (eating as little protein, potassium and salt), balancing sugar level, treating blood pressure, stopping smoking, minimizing alcohol consumption, maintaining proper weight, and rational use of medicines Which are sold without a prescription, and which are known for toxicity of the kidney such as analgesics (prosthen, Voltarin)
Other treatments, designed to treat complications of the disease with blood pressure medications such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), cholesterol lowering treatments, hemoglobin lift, anemia treatment, bone strengthening, And a low-protein diet, which prevents excess burden on the patient's kidney.
Definition of renal dialysis:
In the end, when the kidneys are infected with kidney failure, there is a need to clear the blood in order to prevent life threatening situations.
I am renal dialysis:
1 - dialysis): The idea that is the basis of the dialysis is to perform, by medical devices, the activity done by the kidneys in the body of the healthy person. This can be done by hemodialysis. Blood is inserted through the tube of a blood purifier and returned to the body after liquidation. This process takes a few hours and must be done several times a week. Another possibility is the peritoneal wash - through which a special liquid solution is introduced into the abdominal cavity. The peritoneal membrane is then transferred from the blood to the solution and the solution is then pumped out of the abdominal cavity.
2- Kidney transplant: A kidney transplant is performed in the patient's body which was donated by a deceased person or a live donor. The kidney transplant operates instead of the kidney that does not work.
Prevention of chronic renal failure
The seven golden rules for maintaining the college:
1. Maintain fitness and physical activity - reduce blood pressure has been shown to maintain the performance of the kidney.
2. Preserving the level of sugar - Nearly half of diabetes patients suffer from kidney damage, periodic examination of the level of sugar and maintain it at normal rates to prevent or delay damage to kidneys and other organs
3. Maintain a healthy blood pressure - Everyone knows that high blood pressure damages the functioning of the heart and may lead to stroke. But high blood pressure is also a common cause of kidney failure, so it should be measured periodically and treated according to instructions when it is high.
4. Healthy food and maintaining a healthy weight - essential to maintain the performance of the heart, blood vessels and prevent diabetes, which harms the performance of the college. In addition, it is important to maintain low salt nutrition because salt leads to excess overload on the kidney.
5. Smoking - In addition to damage to the respiratory system, smoking also harms the supply of blood to the kidney, and increases the risk of kidney cancer by 50%.
6. Refrain from using over-the-counter medicines on a regular basis - Many drugs, especially known pain killers (NSAIDS) (such as Nurofen) cause cumulative damage to kidneys when used in large quantities and at high frequency.
7. Persons facing the risk factors mentioned in this article should have a periodic blood test, which can help detect kidney injury at an early stage.